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HIV Guide
 Zambia HIV National Guidelines


HIV Counseling and Testing  

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)  

General Principles of Antiretroviral Therapy for Chronic HIV Infection in Adults and Adolescents  

When to Start ARV Therapy for Chronic HIV Infection in Adults and Adolescents  

Initial Regimen for ARV Therapy  


Baseline evaluation and Monitoring  

Calculations: Ideal Body Weight, Body Mass Index and Creatinine Clearance  

ARV Therapy for Individuals with Tuberculosis Co-Infection  

Adverse Effects and Toxicity  

Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS)  

Changing or Stopping ART  

Treatment Failure  

Stopping ARV Therapy  

Post Exposure Prophylaxis  

Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis  

WHO Staging in Adults and Adolescents  

Nutrition Care and Support  

Palliative Care in HIV and AIDS  

 Guide Editors
 Editor In Chief
    Joel E. Gallant, MD, MPH

Pharmacology Editor
    Paul Pham, PharmD, BCPS

Zambia Guideline Team
   Peter Mwaba MMed PhD FRCP
   Alywn Mwinga MMed
   Isaac Zulu MMed MPH
   Velepie Mtonga MMed
   Albert Mwango MBChB
   Jabbin Mulwanda MMed FCS



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Guide to Abbreviations


Drug Administration:

qd/od = once daily
bid/bd = twice daily
tid/tds = three times daily
qid/qds = four times daily


3TC - Lamivudine
- Abacavir
AIDS - Acquired immune deficiency syndrome/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
APCA - African Palliative Care Association
ALT - Alanine aminotransferase
ANC - Antenatal Clinic
ARVs - Antiretroviral drugs
ART - Antiretroviral therapy
AST - Aspartate aminotransferase
AZT - Zidovudine
CCT - Confidential counselling and testing
CD4 count - CD4+ T cell count (helper T cell count)
CNS - Central nervous system
CSO - Civil Society Organisation
CTX - Cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole)
d4T - Stavudine
DBS - Dried blood spots
ddI - Didanosine
DS - Double-strength
DM - Diabetes mellitus
EFV - Efavirenz
FTC - Emtricitabine
ESR - Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
FBC - Full blood count
HAART - Highly active antiretroviral therapy
HBC - Home based care
HBsAg - Hepatitis B surface antigen
HCV - Hepatitis C virus
HSV - Herpes simplex virus
HIV - Human immunodeficiency virus
HMIS - Health management information system
IRIS - Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
IDV - Indinavir
IBD - Inflammatory bowel disease
IBS - Irritable bowel syndrome
IPT - Intermittent presumptive therapy
LPV/r - Lopinavir/ritonavir
NAISP - National AIDS Intervention Strategic Plan
NARF - NAC Activity Reporting Form
NASF - National AIDS Strategic Framework
NNRTI - Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
NSAID - Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
NRTI - Nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor
NVP - Nevirapine
OVC - Orphans and vulnerable children
Pap smear - Papaninicolou smear
PCAZ - Palliative Care Association of Zambia
PCP - Pneumocystis pneumonia
PEP - Post-exposure prophylaxis
PLHA/PLWHA - People living with HIV and /or AIDS
PMTCT - Prevention of mother-to-child transmission
PI - Protease inhibitors
QA - Quality assurance
STI - Sexually transmitted infection
SS - Single-strength
THPAZ - Traditional Health Practitioners Association of Zambia
TDF - Tenofovir
VL - Viral load
WHO - World Health Organization
ZDV - Zidovudine


Complications of Therapy



Opportunistic Infections

Organ System


Antimicrobial Agents




Zambia HIV National Guidelines


Antiretroviral Therapy

Laboratory Testing







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